France has declared a state of emergency imposing a curfew in Paris.
The city has been ordered to shut down between 9pm and 6am in a reintroduction of strict lockdown measures.
Visitors will be confined to their hotels and residents have been told to stay at home.
The curfew will initially last for four weeks.
The measures have also been imposed in eight other French cities including Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse and Lille. French President Emmanuel Macron said: “The situation is worrying but not out of control,” Macron said. “We are in a second wave that is happening all across Europe.
“We have to act. We need to put a brake on the spread of the virus. We have to reduce the number of social contacts … of festive contacts, that are taking place. It will demand a big effort from everyone – but it is necessary.”